Crypto's Path to Citizenship: Evaluating Nations Welcoming Cryptocurrency in Investment Migration Programs

This article examines notable citizenship and residency by investment programs that could appeal to cryptocurrency enthusiasts, including El Salvador's new "Freedom Visa" offering citizenship for a $1 million BTC/USDT investment.

Crypto's Path to Citizenship: Evaluating Nations Welcoming Cryptocurrency in Investment Migration Programs

El Salvador released its unique citizenship-by-investment program called the "Adopting El Salvador Freedom Visa Program," a program that offers both a residency visa and a pathway to citizenship for 1,000 individuals willing to invest $1 million in either Bitcoin or Tether. Commonly known as "golden visas" or "golden passports," the trend of countries offering this type of investment migration legislation is growing.

The question arises - where might crypto enthusiasts be treated best and what should we consider before contemplating citizenship by investment (CBI) and residency by investment (RBI) programs?

Interview for Crypto Related Migration

Residency by investment - RBI Explained

Residency by investment or RBI programs offer individuals from a foreign country the ability to obtain temporary or permanent residency rights within a country that offers an investment opportunity or a window where the newcomer can contribute to his or her right to remain a resident.

Investment requirements are generally lower than for citizenship, which is understandable because these residency grants are temporary, have to be renewed after a certain time.

Citizenship by investment - CBI Explained

Citizenship by investment or CBI programs provides the fastest route to obtaining full citizenship rights in a foreign country. While the exact investment amounts that are required will differ depending on the country you want to invest in, we can say that the amounts in general will be higher than investing for the residency option mentioned above.

In return for these contributions a citizenship status which may include the rights to live, work, study, and travel freely within the nation, on top of benefits such as diplomatic protection and simplified visa processes for family members.

Key Differences between RBI and CBI

The primary distinguishing factor between residency by investment (RBI) and citizenship by investment (CBI) programs often relates to the amount one has to invest.

Residency programs demand generally lower contributions in exchange for offering temporary or permanent residency status, while citizenship programs ask for a higher contribution as they reward participants with full citizenship rights, including the ability to live, work, and travel without limitation within the respective nation.

In this short overview, we list the key differences between RBI and CBI. While this overview is simplistic, each case of a program issued by a country will have its specific features and exact numbers.

Residency and Citizenship by Crypto Investments

This section examines some notable citizenship and residency by investment programs that could be of interest for crypto enthusiasts, like ourselves. This list is just an excerpt and does not cover all options. There are dozens of countries where a second fiscal identity and citizenship can be obtained for less than $50,000 USD.

Always thoroughly research any potential program. Consult professionals like accountants, lawyers and accredited agents to understand requirements, risks, and your specific situation.
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El Salvador

El Salvador's "freedom visa" program introduces a citizenship-by-investment option where applicants may invest "only" $1 million in either Bitcoin or Tether. If successful, they receive the Salvadoran passport, granting visa-free access to over 150 countries including the Schengen zone.

With a limit of 1,000 participants, it is an exclusive initiative from this crypto-friendly country seeking to brand itself as the new cryptocurrency hotspot.

ADOPTING EL SALVADOR - Get Your Freedom Visa Now!
Experience Freedom, Security and a Bitcoin lifestyle by adopting El Salvador as your home. El Salvador has been reborn as the land of economic liberty. But this is just the beginning. Come help us build the future you want to see.

The program was launched in collaboration with Tether, the issuer of USDT stablecoin and for those interested in joining, you simply have to go to the website above and register. And be sure to have $1 million in BTC or USDT ready.

Adopting El Salvador

Twitter Thread State of Bitcoin in El Salvador


Paraguay also offers a compelling package for those seeking new residency. A place particularly attractive to crypto holders and digital nomads, with its territorial tax system and no tax on foreign income. The residency process is straightforward and cost-effective, requiring only a brief visit to the country.

Obtaining such a Paraguayan residency paves the way for unrestricted access to South America, and depending on where you came from, offers a dual-continent advantage. The regular process requires a $4,500 USD bank deposit or business/agricultural investment. With a faster process, it's $9,150 USD for individuals and $27,500 USD for companies. More info can be found here.

Consulado General de la República del Paraguay en Los Angeles-CA, Estados Unidos de América :: Residence of Foreign Nationals in Paraguay


Cryptocurrency exchange HTX did in 2023 a similar crypto-related residency and citizenship launch in collaboration with Dominica. By enabling users to apply for Dominica Decentralized Identity on its platform.

We know that the minimum investment requirement for Dominica's CBI program is a donation of $100,000 or real estate investment of at least $200,000 to become a citizen of this beautiful Caribbean paradise. The Dominican Identity is a soulbound token and will grant the same rights as a Dominican passport.

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Another micro country, namely the Republic of Palau, launched the world's first digital residency program called the Root Name System. This RBI provides applicants with a blockchain-based verified digital ID in the form of a non-fungible token (NFT). - Web 3.0 Digital ID
RNS (Root Name System) is the official technology provider for the Palau Digital Residency Program, and the world’s first digital Web3 identity platform developed to support the application and issuance of sovereignty-backed IDs.

Benefits of digital residency include access to global business opportunities, remote corporate formation and operation without geographic limitations. This is a new way for the country to seek to diversify its tourism-reliant economy and position itself alongside other crypto-friendly countries, putting it on a path toward becoming a future crypto hub that attracts talent.

Already some notable Palau citizens include Ethereum founder Vitalik Buterin and venture capital investor Tim Draper.

Vitalik Buterin - Palau Citizenship


Portugal allows individuals to obtain a Golden Visa by investing €250,000 -€500,000 in a house or property, depending on specific requirements. Although the investment must be made in euros, the country has expressed interest in accepting cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum for property investments. It is frequently falsely classified as citizenship by investment when, in fact, it only offers residency.

Portugal Residency By Investment FAQ | Top residency Q’s answered
Portugal Residency By Investment FAQ | Find answers to the most common questions about residency by investment in Portugal through the Golden Visa program.


Panama is one of the most popular countries for citizenship by investment (CBI) due to its relatively low investment requirement of $80,000 - $100,000, depending on the type of investment, for a single applicant and flexible residency program. Panama also offers visa-free travel to over 140 countries, including the European Union's Schengen zone.

Panama emerges as an excellent option for both business and permanent residency due to its territorial tax policy, which means foreign income, including capital gains, is not taxed.

This policy is particularly favorable for entrepreneurs and investors looking to maximize their income efficiency. Permanent residency can be secured through a real estate investment of at least $200,000 USD.

Consulate General of Panama in Toronto, Canada
Toronto Panama Consulate website informative tool useful to our citizens and to all those in need of the services that this consulate offers.

Misconceptions and Clarifications

Citizenship or residency by investment programs are often misunderstood, leading to perceived misconceptions or concerns. Let's clarify some of these preconceptions. These programs are:

NOT only for criminals or wealthy individuals.

In reality, CBI/RBI programs are legitimate investment schemes that attract individuals from all walks of life and their own motivations.

While some may participate for illicit purposes like tax evasion or money laundering, most participants genuinely seek opportunities to build quality lives both financially and in lifestyle, freely choosing how best to do so. If practicing one's freedom, why not select the best way possible.

ARE NOT a quick and easy path to citizenship or residency.

CBI/RBI programs typically involve a multi-step application process, which includes a thorough due diligence process, preparation of many documents, and obtaining various government approvals. The entire process can take several months to complete, and some programs may take even longer, potentially taking years.

DO NOT ALWAYS allow for visa-free travel to any country.

CBI/RBI programs typically provide visa-free access to a select group of countries, often based on diplomatic relations or bilateral agreements between the resident country and others. However, visa-free travel is not guaranteed universally. You must know and check the specific eligibility requirements for visa restrictions or grants, as visa-free access may not apply in all circumstances.

DO NOT offer complete anonymity and secrecy.

CBI/RBI programs involve transparency and regulatory oversight mechanisms. In order to apply, these participating countries maintain public records of your investments and have the ability to inform your former resident country and their tax authorities. This framework aims to ensure compliance with anti-money laundering and anti-corruption regulations.


Now that we understand the common misconceptions, we can examine the financial realities of participating in these programs and the costs associated with setting up the necessary investments. As some programs require spending a certain amount of time in the country before being granted residency, this requirement could lead to additional expenses for travel and accomodation during that period.

While the time commitment alone could greatly impact applicants, the added costs should not be overlooked either. These may include due diligence fees to facilitate thorough background checks, processing fees, application fees, potential property transfer taxes, passport issuance fees, and various government taxes.

There may also be extra costs should applicants wish to include family members, such as per-person fees or flat rates irrespective of family size. The full financial obligation warrants consideration.

The Nomadical Future of Investment Programs

As globalization and technological advancements continue, with cryptocurrency leading the way, the global landscape will be transformed. This has the potential for a scenario where nation-states are going to actively compete for citizens who are talented and could boost their economies.

Highly regulated nations and those with unfriendly tax rules could face 'Talent Scarcity,' which is a growing demand for skilled talent. Many will hope this gives birth to tax competition or programs facilitating remote work arrangements.


Citizenship by investment (CBI) and residency by investment (RBI) programs, also known as golden visa programs, provide high-net-worth individuals and some digital nomads the option to relocate and the right to live and work.

Nation-states must carefully consider their taxation policies and citizenship eligibility criteria to attract and retain the talent and skills they need to thrive in the increasingly digital global economy. Soon it will be nation states fighting to attract productive citizens, not the other way around.

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*Important Disclaimer: While every effort is made on this website to provide accurate information, any opinions expressed or information disseminated do not necessarily reflect the views of Bitfinity itself. The information provided here is for general informational purposes only and should not be considered as financial advice.